By Geoffrey Leech, Jan Svartvik
A Communicative Grammar of English used to be first released in 1975, because then the booklet has proven itself as a grammar leading edge in technique, trustworthy in assurance, and transparent in its factors. it truly is now on hand during this totally revised and redesigned 3rd variation to supply updated and obtainable aid to lecturers, complex newbies and undergraduates scholars of English. a totally new Workbook co-authored through ELT experts Edward Woods and Rudy Coppieters also will accompany this variation. This version is split into 3 elements: half One: A advisor to using this e-book, this seems to be on the means English grammar varies in numerous different types of English, for instance ¿formal¿ and ¿informal¿, ¿spoken¿ and ¿written¿ half : Grammar in use, crucial half, offers grammar throughout the eyes of the communicator and makes a speciality of the makes use of of grammar instead of on grammatical constitution half 3: A-Z in English grammar presents an alphabetically prepared advisor to English grammar
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Additional resources for A Communicative Grammar of English, Third Edition
It is assumed that Schumann had worked with informants who were native speakers of Sranan and that he himself might have been very proficient in the creole since he provides accurate and exhaustive information, both linguistic and cultural, in his dictionary (Arends 1989: 19, Bruyn 1995b: 154–155, Plag 1993: 57–58). Schumann’s dictionary is valuable since it makes reference to two major varieties of Sranan, Bakkratongo (‘White man’s tongue’) and Ningretongo (‘Negro language’) and provides the author’s and the informants’ numerous comments on the differences between the two varieties.
The slaves from the Windward Coast were mainly speakers of the coastal languages, such as Kru, southern Mande and southern Atlantic, as well as speakers of western Kwa languages (Arends 1995a: 250). Arends notes that the influence from the Windward Coast may have been rather small because of the late arrival of their speakers on the linguistic scene in Suriname (cf. Postma 1990: 116). According to Parkvall’s (2000a: 126) interpretation of Postma’s (1990) data on the general Dutch slave trade, slaves from the Biafra region might have made up five percent of the slave imports in 1650s, nine percent in the 1660s and again five percent in the 1670s, with no imports in the following decades.
Koefoed and Tarenskeen 1996: 132). Smith assumes that Sranan might have come into existence as a fully fledged creole language at the very beginning of Suriname’s existence, approximately by 1665, before the majority of English planters left the colony. Smith (2002: 135) suggests that Sranan must have been creolised before Saramaccan came into existence around ca. 1680 since the two languages bear a rather close resemblance to each other in terms of features that are absent in other Caribbean English-based creoles, for instance the use of participial reduplicated adjectives.
A Communicative Grammar of English, Third Edition by Geoffrey Leech, Jan Svartvik