By James O'Connor
O'Connor, a Neo-Marxist, contends that individualist ethics in the United States became tremendous expensive to the world's so much complex capitalist society.
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Extra resources for Accumulation Crisis
In a multimember constituency, with 4 seats but 10 candidates, a voter might cast up to 10 preferential votes. This opens up possibility that some of those votes might be cast for candidates across the sectarian or ethnic divide. By contrast, List-system Proportional Representation requires that votes be cast for a single party list, so there is no way to transfer votes across group lines, if parties are ethnically based, as they tend to be in severely divided societies. The voter is locked within his ethnic party.
There is a difference between a constitution and a contract, and there is a crucial disjunction between the mode of decision-making and the content of accommodative arrangements. Bargaining, reciprocity, and exchange are ways that groups agree to arrangements that may moderate their conflict. The outcome of these processes is compromise. In crafting institutions to facilitate inter-ethnic compromise, however, there is a need for something other than a compromise. There is a need for Encouraging electoral accommodation in divided societies 35 I State, society and governance in Melanesia consistent, coherent institutions of accommodation that prevent backsliding into conflict.
Under seat pooling, if five ethnic parties each have 20 per cent of seats, any three can form a government by pooling seats. None needs to seek votes from voters outside its own group. And no inter-group compromise will result. If, however, there are strong incentives to vote pooling, candidates must appeal outside their group to succeed, in order to be elected to office. Politicians seek to pool votes before the elections rather than seats after. To be elected president of Nigeria in 1979, a candidate needed a plurality in the whole country plus at least 25 per cent of the votes in at least two-thirds of the then 19 states.
Accumulation Crisis by James O'Connor