All Clear: Listening and Speaking - download pdf or read online

By Helen Kalkstein Fragiadakis

ISBN-10: 1413017045

ISBN-13: 9781413017045

All transparent teaches scholars to acknowledge and convey the high-frequency idioms, words, and modern expressions wanted in a number conversational events. each one lesson focuses before everything on chunks of language within the type of idioms and different expressions (collocations) after which offers many based and communicative actions for talking, listening, grammar, writing, pronunciation, and public talking perform.

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It is assumed that Schumann had worked with informants who were native speakers of Sranan and that he himself might have been very proficient in the creole since he provides accurate and exhaustive information, both linguistic and cultural, in his dictionary (Arends 1989: 19, Bruyn 1995b: 154–155, Plag 1993: 57–58). Schumann’s dictionary is valuable since it makes reference to two major varieties of Sranan, Bakkratongo (‘White man’s tongue’) and Ningretongo (‘Negro language’) and provides the author’s and the informants’ numerous comments on the differences between the two varieties.

The slaves from the Windward Coast were mainly speakers of the coastal languages, such as Kru, southern Mande and southern Atlantic, as well as speakers of western Kwa languages (Arends 1995a: 250). Arends notes that the influence from the Windward Coast may have been rather small because of the late arrival of their speakers on the linguistic scene in Suriname (cf. Postma 1990: 116). According to Parkvall’s (2000a: 126) interpretation of Postma’s (1990) data on the general Dutch slave trade, slaves from the Biafra region might have made up five percent of the slave imports in 1650s, nine percent in the 1660s and again five percent in the 1670s, with no imports in the following decades.

Koefoed and Tarenskeen 1996: 132). Smith assumes that Sranan might have come into existence as a fully fledged creole language at the very beginning of Suriname’s existence, approximately by 1665, before the majority of English planters left the colony. Smith (2002: 135) suggests that Sranan must have been creolised before Saramaccan came into existence around ca. 1680 since the two languages bear a rather close resemblance to each other in terms of features that are absent in other Caribbean English-based creoles, for instance the use of participial reduplicated adjectives.

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All Clear: Listening and Speaking by Helen Kalkstein Fragiadakis

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